ERF (Closed Residential Complex) - privatized streets |

There is no unequivocal definition of the concept of "closed residential complex."

In Marseille perimeter, it lists more than 1,000 residential units, subdivisions, groups of buildings surrounded by closed-secure public areas and closed roads.
Beyond luxury residences closed, very selective and very tight the affluent, for less than a decade the phenomenon of residential fence, in all its forms, more or less tight, more or less ostentatious seems have spread to all parts of the city, systematically defining the public areas of those condominiums, preventing cross residences, imposing new constraints on paths and parking, finally introducing a partitioning of space in residential areas. This urban development may seem to participate in a "generalized spatial expression of insecurity," but it can also connect to other dynamic political, economic and social. Widespread closures appears to be accelerating, as to alter significantly in some areas, the configuration of the urban space.
Marseille is observed at the entrance of some local access roads and that, even in peri-quarters complete closure by fixed barrier and automatic gate for all connections between / private streets of a subdivision and the way public. The co-owners have legitimately close to residential areas to the extent they service them without public support, in a context of financial difficulties of the community that tends to define more strictly its field of intervention on spaces .
This series of photographs is to establish a non-exhaustive inventory of lane closures "private" (or claimed as such, with statutes sometimes confusing) of old housing estates, in pericentral situation and to have a debate on the closure and compartmentalization progressive residential spaces related to various social logics, economic and political at work and heterogeneity of local contexts.
These streets barred usually belong to small and medium estates of the 30 to 50 whose roads, initially well connected to the public network was gradually closed by condominium associations. They are more or less accepted by local residents, and provoke debate. In some (rare) cases, the dam is observed small public roads, often in contexts of strong "residential malaise." This trend may ultimately pose urban continuity problems and raises the question of the status of channels (private, public) and their possible evolution (filing, decommissioning, disposal ...). In the past, some subdivisions in unclear status has occasionally got the city supports, subsidies, public intervention of garbage removal, cleaning ... without their paths are incorporated into the public domain. The recent implementation of the 1986 Act has clarified certain situations. But the historical policy of disengagement of Marseille municipalities facilitated the persistence of private roads.
The social logic of closing may refer to an aggregation process (research of self, preservation, protection, group identification), and a process of segregation, separation, making the gap or distancing from one another.
This is a global phenomenon, one must not overlook the importance in the transformation of modes of urban lives and representations of urbanity. Residential enclaves refer to the dynamics of regionalization urban infra, delineation, privatization uses portions of urban space and social fragmentation and manager of the city. The research on the sociology of this phenomenon emphasize the acuteness of the social inequalities that overdetermine security issues. Beyond the safety purpose, this evolution residential spaces seems to express a series of profound changes in lifestyles, social relations and relations with space.